Lowering the Barriers to Programming: A Taxonomy of Programming Environments and Languages for Novice Programmers

Caitlin Kelleher, Randy Pausch


Since the early 1960's, researchers have built a number of programming languages and environments with the intention of making programming accessible to a larger number of people. This article presents a taxonomy of languages and environments designed to make programming more accessible to novice programmers of all ages. The systems are organized by their primary goal, either to teach programming or to use programming to empower their users, and then, by each system's authors' approach, to making learning to program easier for novice programmers. The article explains all categories in the taxonomy, provides a brief description of the systems in each category, and suggests some avenues for future work in novice programming environments and languages.


Bibliography Navigation: Reference List; Author Index; Title Index; Keyword Index

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