What WoT means for the Web

International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Semantic Web (KESW 2015) [http://2015.kesw.ru/]

Erik Wilde, Siemens
October 1, 2015

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Contents Erik Wilde: What WoT means for the Web

Contents

Erik Wilde: What WoT means for the Web

(2) Abstract

Looking back at the Internet, arguably the biggest impact on how the Internet evolved and developed was the invention of the Web. It can be argued that the nascent Internet of Things (IoT) might take the same trajectory, with first seeing limited and isolated success in specific domains with specific protocols, and then taking off exponentially once those barriers are removed by making the step from IoT to the Web of Things (WoT). This talk is exploring the ways in which IoT and the Web may change once WoT becomes a reality.



IoT and WoT

Outline (IoT and WoT)

  1. IoT and WoT [7]
    1. IoT Problems [5]
  2. Web Challenges [6]
    1. WoT Challenges [1]
    2. Linked Data Challenges [4]
  3. Small is Beautiful [3]
  4. Embrace Diversity [6]
  5. Conclusions [2]
IoT and WoT Erik Wilde: What WoT means for the Web

(4) Internet of Things (IoT): So Many Worlds!

internet-of-things.jpg

IoT and WoT Erik Wilde: What WoT means for the Web

(5) Why/How IoT/WoT Change the Web



IoT Problems

IoT Problems Erik Wilde: What WoT means for the Web

(7) Making Things Webby

  • IoT starts with connecting and networking things
    • Big challenges on lower layers such as frequency band management
    • Once connectivity is established, IoT can take over
  • IoT is about making things accessible on the Internet
    • Internet connectivity can be slow, intermittent, and risky
    • WoT treats IoT as an implementation issue
  • What is missing to make the step from IoT to WoT?
    • W3C [http://www.w3.org/]'s WoT Interest Group (IG) [http://www.w3.org/WoT/IG/] is working on addressing the gaps
    • Many IoT scenarios need more Web architecture to become more webby
    • Generic WoT interaction models may be the same tipping point as they were for the Web


IoT Problems Erik Wilde: What WoT means for the Web

(8) Invisibility

  • No Web-level identification of resources/services
    • URIs often are resolvable HTTP URIs but don't have to be (things may be identifiable but not accessible)
    • Identification (even without interaction) creates a lot of value
    • Identity and identification are hard problems for real-world resources (it often depends on context what the right approach is)
  • Data Fusion works best with known and managed identifiers
    • Entity recognition and disambiguation are notoriously difficult tasks
  • Robust naming schemes are needed for all WoT scenarios
    • The network effect needs stable and relatable identifiers
    • Actionable identifiers are a (big) plus but not required
  • If something matters to you, you give it a name, and then you can talk about it.


IoT Problems Erik Wilde: What WoT means for the Web

(9) Discoverability

  • No easy way to find existing (i.e., identified) resources
    • Will there be a Google for the IoT? How would it work in today's/tomorrow's WoT?
    • Something similar to schema.org [http://schema.org/] may be helpful/necessary
  • Discovery in IoT often also needs a robust update channel
    • The set of discovered/relevant resources can change over time
    • Subscribing to change messages allows clients to stay in sync
  • Discovery is a highly contextual problem (what is your goal?)
    • Building managers have little interest in sensor details but need them to be working
    • Maintenance personnel need to track sensors through their lifecycle to manage them
  • In an open world, resources come and go, and discovering them is essential.


IoT Problems Erik Wilde: What WoT means for the Web

(10) Siloization

  • Many of today's IoT solutions are verticals
    • Easier to design and implement for vendors (engineering legacy)
    • Easier to control and monetize (walled gardens can be profitable)
  • A lot of value can be created by working across silo boundaries
    • Avoid warehouse approaches selling centralized integration
    • Prefer ecosystem approaches that with a truly decentralized architecture
    • Centralization should be a policy/operational choice, not an architectural one
  • The Web is an interlinked set of decentralized resources that clients can traverse any way they like.


IoT Problems Erik Wilde: What WoT means for the Web

(11) Precious Snowflakes (aka NIH)

snowflakes.jpg
  • Starting from scratch often is easier than reuse
    • Many existing designs are not well-documented
    • Many existing designs are not open/extensible
    • In many cases there is no (immediate) incentive to reuse
  • Service patterns are a good starting point
    • W3C should stay away from specific domains and focus on the connective fabric
    • Domain models should be left to domain experts and their organizations
    • Domain models should be built on their preferred metamodels
  • Try to minimize the element of surprise and reuse everything that you can.


  • Web Challenges

    Outline (Web Challenges)

    1. IoT and WoT [7]
      1. IoT Problems [5]
    2. Web Challenges [6]
      1. WoT Challenges [1]
      2. Linked Data Challenges [4]
    3. Small is Beautiful [3]
    4. Embrace Diversity [6]
    5. Conclusions [2]
    Web Challenges Erik Wilde: What WoT means for the Web

    (13) Loose Coupling



    WoT Challenges

    Outline (WoT Challenges)

    1. IoT and WoT [7]
      1. IoT Problems [5]
    2. Web Challenges [6]
      1. WoT Challenges [1]
      2. Linked Data Challenges [4]
    3. Small is Beautiful [3]
    4. Embrace Diversity [6]
    5. Conclusions [2]
    WoT Challenges Erik Wilde: What WoT means for the Web

    (15) Selling the Web can be hard

    • Many IoT services/platforms are well-designed verticals
    • Bridging IoT verticals can be uninteresting or even risky for IoT players
      • Breaking out of verticals happens when users demand a better approach
    • The Web is a constantly evolving set of technologies that practitioners need to know
    • Coming up with domain models is (a minor) part of the challenge
      • Establish a Web-aware designer/developer community
      • Look at other scenarios for inspiration
      • Participate in the ongoing effort to improve the Web one spec at a time


    Linked Data Challenges

    Outline (Linked Data Challenges)

    1. IoT and WoT [7]
      1. IoT Problems [5]
    2. Web Challenges [6]
      1. WoT Challenges [1]
      2. Linked Data Challenges [4]
    3. Small is Beautiful [3]
    4. Embrace Diversity [6]
    5. Conclusions [2]
    Linked Data Challenges Erik Wilde: What WoT means for the Web

    (17) Vocabularies are Important



    Linked Data Challenges Erik Wilde: What WoT means for the Web

    (18) Vocabularies are Special

    Sharing Data vs. Sharing Concepts

    Linked Data Challenges Erik Wilde: What WoT means for the Web

    (19) Interaction Matters

    • The Web is a Service/Interaction Platform
      • The primary concern is the interaction model (how to navigate a service's resources)
      • The domain model of the is secondary (what the resources represent and how they do it)
    • Hydra [https://www.w3.org/community/hydra/] is an RDF-centric approach for representing hypermedia
      • It is an RDF model for many existing and tested interaction patterns for Web services
      • It includes paging, templated queries, error responses, documentation links, and more
      • It is struggling in a community that is data centric and not service centric


    Linked Data Challenges Erik Wilde: What WoT means for the Web

    (20) Hydra Overview



    Small is Beautiful

    Outline (Small is Beautiful)

    1. IoT and WoT [7]
      1. IoT Problems [5]
    2. Web Challenges [6]
      1. WoT Challenges [1]
      2. Linked Data Challenges [4]
    3. Small is Beautiful [3]
    4. Embrace Diversity [6]
    5. Conclusions [2]
    Small is Beautiful Erik Wilde: What WoT means for the Web

    (22) The Case Against World Models



    Small is Beautiful Erik Wilde: What WoT means for the Web

    (23) Models and the Web



    Small is Beautiful Erik Wilde: What WoT means for the Web

    (24) The Web is Hypermedia



    Embrace Diversity

    Outline (Embrace Diversity)

    1. IoT and WoT [7]
      1. IoT Problems [5]
    2. Web Challenges [6]
      1. WoT Challenges [1]
      2. Linked Data Challenges [4]
    3. Small is Beautiful [3]
    4. Embrace Diversity [6]
    5. Conclusions [2]
    Embrace Diversity Erik Wilde: What WoT means for the Web

    (26) No Silver Unicorn

    The nice thing about standards is that there are so many to choose from.

    Embrace Diversity Erik Wilde: What WoT means for the Web

    (27) Dare To Think Small

    small-models.png

    Embrace Diversity Erik Wilde: What WoT means for the Web

    (28) Web Models



    Embrace Diversity Erik Wilde: What WoT means for the Web

    (29) The 3 Main Sins of Web Models

    1. The Abyss of Abstraction
      • Resist the urge to create upper ontologies unless you need to
    2. The Expanse of Everything that Exists
      • Resist the urge to try to predict the future
      • Instead, make sure that when the future happens, you can handle it
    3. The Illusion of Order
      • Resist the urge to assume that everything is well-defined
      • Tagging may feel weird but sometimes is the way to go


    Embrace Diversity Erik Wilde: What WoT means for the Web

    (30) Models Create Value



    Embrace Diversity Erik Wilde: What WoT means for the Web

    (31) WoT Service Models

    wot-service-model.png

    Conclusions

    Outline (Conclusions)

    1. IoT and WoT [7]
      1. IoT Problems [5]
    2. Web Challenges [6]
      1. WoT Challenges [1]
      2. Linked Data Challenges [4]
    3. Small is Beautiful [3]
    4. Embrace Diversity [6]
    5. Conclusions [2]
    Conclusions Erik Wilde: What WoT means for the Web

    (33) WoT is Happening!



    Conclusions Erik Wilde: What WoT means for the Web

    (34) Thanks! Q&A

    What's Next?

    October 1, 2015 International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Semantic Web (KESW 2015) [http://2015.kesw.ru/]